Surely everyone who thought about moving from Russia, at least once purposefully or casually considered Spain. Undoubtedly, this choice has grounds:
- location and climate;
- the friendliness of the locals;
- low price level (by European standards);
- affordable housing;
- stable economy;
- actively developing high-tech industries;
- many jobs in agriculture, construction, service industry;
- the possibility of free movement in the Schengen zone, subject to Spanish registration.
Features of obtaining a residence permit in Spain
The basis for legal stay in the territory of the kingdom is to obtain a residence permit in Spain. Besides this underlying reason, there are additional benefits:
- the opportunity to live and work freely in any of the twenty-six countries of the Schengen zone;
- free medical care;
- the ability to achieve Spanish citizenship;
- profitable mortgage lending programs;
Before thinking about how to receive permanent residence in Spain for the Russians, and take up the choice of a resettlement program, you need to make sure that the basic requirements are met:
- No criminal record over the last 5 years, excluding the country of residence. It is interesting that offenses specific to other countries are not taken into account;
- confirmation of legal income in the case of a request for a residence permit without the right to work;
- medical insurance for the applicant and his family members;
- no prohibition of entry into the territory of any of the Schengen countries;
- absence of dangerous diseases.
The first residence is issued for 1 year. To receive it, you need to collect a package of documents, including confirmation of income. The next one is already issued for 2 years. This is followed by another two-year extension, and after five years of living in the country, a relatively quiet period begins: the residence is issued for five years, after which you can already apply for permanent residence and citizenship.
A citizen having a residence permit has to be in the territory of the country for at least 183 days a year. Otherwise, migration services may refuse to renew.
How to receive a residence permit in Spain
Execution of a residence permit in Spain can be with the right to work or without it.
The main ways of receiving residence:
- on a study visa for paid education;
- on the residence of the investor, through the purchase of real estate;
- on the basis of marriage with a citizen of the country;
- family based;
- under a working contract;
- obtaining refugee status;
- settlement legalization.
Stay in the country based on training
The educational institution must have a certificate from the Ministry of Education and have the right to invite foreign students. In this case, the profile of training can be any – secondary school, university, language courses, school of cookery, etc.
There are two types of student visas:
- study visa to stay in the country up to 180 days a year. It is suitable for combining leisure with a study on short-term courses;
- study visa entitling to obtain a student residence valid for one year. It can be extended without leaving the country.
Visa D gives the theoretical right to work for 4 hours a day. If you are lucky with employment, you can get social and medical insurance cards.
The visa entitles to receive an alien identification number, which is required for opening a bank account, obtaining a card for using a bicycle system, etc.
The term of permanent residence on the school residence is not counted in the general experience of residence when you make a permanent residence.
Stay in the country on investment in the economy and real estate
If you are thinking how to get a residence permit in Spain through the real estate, you know, this is not the cheapest option. To obtain a “golden visa”, it is necessary to purchase real estate in the amount of at least € 500,000, additional expenses at the same time make another 11–12%, to invest in securities in the amount of € 2,000,000 or to open a deposit in a Spanish bank from 1,000,000 €.
The business chosen for investment should be of interest to the economy and national interests of Spain: to create jobs, to attract investments and to promote the development of the region or to finance high technology.
You can start the execution of a residence permit in Spain upon purchase of a real estate one year after receiving the “golden visa”. The first residence is issued for 2 years, the next – for 5 years. When re-issuing a residence permit in Spain on an investor’s visa, it is necessary that the real estate costs at least € 500,000. You can apply for citizenship after 10 years of legal residence in the country. For this purpose, you must give up the existing citizenship of another country and pass an exam on knowledge of the language, history, and culture of Spain.
Obtaining a residence permit in Spain when buying the real estate provides the right to work not only to the investor himself, but also his family members. There is no minimum stay in the country, but you should visit it once in the first two years and one more time in the next three years. In five years, you can live and work in any country of the European Community.
Residence permit in Spain without the right to work
Modern retirees with retirement gain mobility, and those who can afford to move to live in Spain from Russia go to this country with a favored maritime climate, good social and medical care, rich cultural traditions.
For the Russian retirees, there is no special program for moving to Spain, so it would be best for them to take advantage of the possibility of obtaining a residence permit in Spain without the right to work. This is the so-called residence on confirmed incomes. It is suitable for people who, with savings and incomes outside the country, can ensure a comfortable life by the sea.
The Spanish authorities issue the residence permit in Spain for retirees from Russia very willingly: retirees do not apply for the Spanish jobs, but on the contrary, raise funds into the country and can provide jobs for the social employees.
The following requirements are imposed to applicants for receiving this residence permit:
- existence of own or rented housing;
- existence of health insurance in a solid Spanish or international company;
- existence of money on the account in a Spanish bank at the rate of € 26,000 per person per year and € 32,000 for two.
Any legal income outside the kingdom, retiring accruals, interest on deposits, income from own or share business will be suitable as income. Finally, the most popular is the income from renting an apartment, a summer house, a country house.
The better financial independence of the applicant is supported, the more loyal the Spanish authorities will be, which means that the more likely it will be possible to leave for permanent residence in Spain from Russia.
Residence permit by family status
Family bonds give the right to obtain a residence permit with a further opportunity to achieve Spanish citizenship and residence in the territory of the kingdom, if:
- one of the parents or ancestors was or is the Spaniard by birth;
- there are close relatives of the Spanish nationality;
- close relatives are the residents of Spain;
- children who were born in the territory of the country.
Anyone who initiates a family reunification procedure has to prove the financial opportunity to support relatives. They, in turn, have to submit documents that they need financial support from their relatives – citizens or residents of Spain.
Residence permit on marriage with a citizen or resident of Spain
A marriage with a Spanish citizen also entitles you to a residence. It is interesting that to stay in the territory of the country, in this case, can be illegal.
After marriage in the territory of Russia or Spain, the residence on marriage is issued. This document gives the right to move to Spain for permanent residence from Russia, to work in the country and for free movement over the countries of the Schengen agreement. A year after receiving the residence on marriage, you can apply for citizenship. Subtle aspect: not from the date of marriage, but from the date of obtaining a residence permit.
By this time, the spouses should live together, keep the joint household, not to be divorced in fact. The application will be satisfied in the absence of criminal records, with good knowledge of the Spanish language and integration into society.
A residence permit under a work contract
Residence permit in Spain with the right to work can be received if you find a job under the contract. Let’s be honest, Spain is not the best place to go, look around, and to find a job close to the house and for decent money. On the contrary, the unemployment rate there is very high not only among immigrants but also among the indigenous people of the country.
Nevertheless, for the blue card holders, the chances of getting an interesting high-paid job are very high.
How to get the coveted blue plastic card? For this you need to meet only three conditions:
- to have a diploma of higher education, corresponding to Spanish, in the required specialty. Work experience and a good resume are welcomed;
- to sign a contract with a future employer;
- not to be a citizen of any of the EU countries.
What gives a residence permit in Spain for the “white collar”? The residence gives the right to work on the same conditions as the indigenous people, it is specifically stipulated by law, as well as the right to free movement in all EU countries as a tourist or student. It is interesting that in this case, knowledge of the language is not obligatory, but is welcomed.
In Spain, the following specialties are in favor:
- specialists in the field of natural and physical and mathematical sciences;
- IT-specialists of the different profile;
- doctors and pharmacists;
- power engineers specializing in alternative energy sources;
- architects, etc.
Permanent residence in Spain for Russians according to refugee status and settlement legalization
Receiving the political asylum in the territory of Spain is possible upon arrival in the country or when applying to the Spanish embassy in the territory of another country.
Refugee status gives the same rights as to the indigenous people of the state, except for participation in elections. The procedure is legally very complicated, the trial in each case takes place individually and can take several years.
The first step to obtaining refugee status will be a conversation with a representative of immigration services, who needs to be proved with the help of convincing facts and documentary materials that the person is in danger in his home country and can become a victim of persecution and the state does not guarantee his protection. If the statement is true, it is necessary to convince the migration services that the target of gaining status is not to obtain citizenship of a European country, but a desire to avoid a real threat to life, honor and dignity.
Prosecutions in one of five areas are considered:
- belonging to a particular social group;
- political motives.
At the moment, obtaining a permanent residence in Spain on refugee status for Russian citizens does not have very good chances of success.
Settlement legalization is difficult and not quite a legal way to obtain citizenship of a country. Until quite recently, there was an opportunity to arrive in the kingdom and get lost there for three years, after which it was possible to appear in the migration authorities with the application of obtaining a residence permit. Now the residence requirement has increased to ten years, that significantly reduced the chances of receiving the coveted document. Besides, one should not forget that during these years there is no possibility to use the services of banks, social and medical insurances, the services of transport companies, to rent housing, etc.
The citizens of the countries of the Schengen zone kept an opportunity to receive a residence permit on the settlement, and then with some reservations.